A segment is a subset of your Google Analytics broken up into three types being: Subsets of users, Subsets of sessions, Subsets of hits data which in turn allows you to go further and extract deeper insights from the data you’ve collected.
Filters in Google Analytics are a method of excluding unwanted traffic, creating custom views, manipulating data and segment it into smaller groups in a view. Additionally you can also use filters to search and replace certain pieces of information.
There are 3 types of Segments: 1. Users: people interact with your website or app. 2. Sessions: user interactions are grouped into sessions. 3. Hits: during a session user interactions like pageviews and transactions are referred to as hits.
Exclude: This type of filter excludes log file lines (hits) that match the Filter Pattern. Matching lines are ignored in their entirety: for example, a filter that excludes Chrome also excludes all other information in that log line, such as visitor, path, referral, and domain information. Include: This type of filter includes log file lines (hits) that match the Filter Pattern. All non-matching hits are ignored and any data in non-matching hits is unavailable in the reports. Lowercase / Uppercase: Converts the contents of the field into all uppercase or all lowercase characters. These filters only affect letters, and do not affect special characters or numbers. Search & Replace: This is a simple filter that you can use to search for a pattern within a field and replace the found pattern with an alternate form. Advanced: This type of filter allows you to build a field from one or two other fields. The filtering engine applies the expressions in the two Extract fields to the specified fields and then constructs a third field using the Constructor expression